Italian Naval Power

The overall strength and capabilities of the Italian Royal Navy during World War II, encompassing its warships, submarines, and naval aviation.

Invasion Fleet

A large group of warships and landing craft assembled for a military invasion. Invasion fleets were crucial for transporting troops, equipment, and supplies to enemy shores. The Normandy landings involved one of the largest invasion fleets ever assembled.

Gk. 36 (Convoy System)

The convoy system was a naval strategy used by the Allies during World War II to protect merchant ships from German U-boat attacks. Ships were grouped together in convoys, escorted by warships, to increase their chances of survival.

German Kriegsmarine Surface Raiders

German warships, including cruisers and battleships, that operated independently in the Atlantic during World War II to disrupt Allied shipping.

Fjords and the German Kriegsmarine

The use of fjords by the German Kriegsmarine during World War II, including the establishment of naval bases, the deployment of warships, and the use of fjords as a strategic advantage.

Escorted Convoy

A group of ships traveling together, protected by warships, against enemy attack. Escorted convoys were a crucial part of World War II logistics, ensuring the safe transport of supplies and troops across oceans.

Ct. Combined Naval Convoys

The formation of protected groups of merchant ships escorted by warships to safeguard vital supplies and resources against enemy submarine and surface attacks.

Cp. Combined Naval Operations

The coordinated use of warships, submarines, and aircraft to achieve naval objectives, such as controlling the seas, protecting shipping lanes, and launching amphibious assaults. These operations were crucial in World War II, where naval dominance was essential for global logistics and strategy.

Cn. Convoy System

A method of naval warfare where merchant ships are escorted by warships to protect them from enemy attacks. This system was critical in World War II, especially in the Battle of the Atlantic, where Allied convoys faced constant threats from German U-boats.


A vertical partition in a vessel that divides the hull into compartments. Bulkheads were essential for maintaining structural integrity and controlling damage in case of flooding, particularly in warships.